ノーベル物理学賞 The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics [Nature]

The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics (ノーベル物理学賞)has been awarded to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji Nakamura.
The three researchers won the award for their invention of diodes that emit blue light, “which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources,” the prize-awarding committee announced in Stockholm today .

Combining blue, green and red diodes creates a long-lasting, efficient white light. But despite earnest industry efforts to work out how to get gallium nitride-based semiconductors to shoot out blue beams, it took until the 1990s before Akasaki and Amano – working together at Nagoya University in Japan – and Nakamura, working at a company in Tokushima called Nichia Chemicals, made the breakthrough.

Nakamura, like the other winners, was born in Japan. But in 2000, he left the country to take up an academic position at the University of Santa Barbara in California, and is now a US citizen. At the time, he said that the United States offered better working conditions: “Japanese industrial research and development may be on its way to becoming obsolete.” He later sued Nichia Chemicals over the compensation he received for inventing the blue LED technology, in January 2005 eventually settling for ¥840 million ($7.6 million at the time).


ノーベル賞 The 2014 Nobel Prize [Nature]

The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser.
The researchers discovered how the brain helps us navigate the world around us.
O’Keefe, a neuroscientist at University College London, discovered specialized “place cells” that were activated when a rat explored a room.

In 2005, the Mosers (a married couple who share a laboratory at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway) together discovered another component of the brain’s positioning system. The “grid cells” they found create a coordinate system by firing at regular spatial intervals as an animal explores a space. They went on to show how grid cells and place cells work together.

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